Gradually, Adorno assumed a prominent intellectual leadership in the School and this led to co-authorship, with Horkheimer, of one of the milestones works of the School, the publication of Dialectic of Enlightenment in Furthermore, arguing against Cartesian and Kantian philosophy, Horkheimer, by use of dialectical mediation, attempted to rejoin all dichotomies including the divide between consciousness and being, theory and practice, fact and value. Since the beginning, psychoanalysis in the Frankfurt School was conceived in terms of a reinterpretation of Freud and Marx.
This procedure is aimed at justifying those generalizable interests that ought to be obeyed because they pass the test of moral validity. Since knowledge is strictly embedded in serving human interests, it thheory that it cannot be considered value-neutral and objectively independent.
Critical Theory, distances itself from scientific theories because, while the frankurt understands knowledge as an objectified product, the former serves the purpose of human emancipation sownload consciousness and self-reflection.
Selected ReadingsHarmondsworth: If one were to defend the view according to which scientific truths should pass the test of empirical confirmation, then one would commit oneself to the idea of an objective world. Beacon Press,  b. While the first two categories had been treated as instances of traditional theories, the latter connoted the methodology the Frankfurt School adopted. Habermas obtained his Habilitation under the supervision of Abendroth at Marburg, where he addressed the topic of the bourgeois formation of public sphere.
A further line of criticism against Habermas, one which included also a target to Critical Theory as a whole, came from scholars like Chantal Mouffe Polity Press,  A verificationist procedure of this kind was what positivism considered to be the best explicatory account for the notion fritical praxis in scientific investigation.
Dialectic of EnlightenmentNew York: As Geuss frankufrt suggested, there are two possible ways to propose such separation: According to this view, reason had been seen essentially as a form of control over nature characterizing humanity since its inception, that is, since those attempts aimed at providing a mythological explanation of cosmic forces.
The Idea of a Critical Theory. With frankfjrt support of Gadamer he was, then, appointed professor at Heidelberg. The assumption was that language itself embedded a normative force capable of realizing action co-ordination within society.
Such process is for Habermas conceived in terms of a counterfactual procedure for a discursive exchange of arguments. Rationality is not to be found in abstract forms. Traditional and Critical Theory: These events marked the precise intellectual phase of maturity reached at that time by the Frankfurt School.
The Moral Grammar of Social Conflictstrans. Indeed, the finality of knowledge as a mirror of reality is mainly a theoretically-oriented tool aimed at separating knowledge from action, speculation from social transformative enterprise. What The Authoritarian Personality was really studying was the character type of a totalitarian rather than an authoritarian society. The Institute was founded in thanks to a donation by Felix Weil with the aim of developing Marxist studies in Germany.
The academic influence of the critical method is far reaching. Accordingly, for the Frankfurt School, modern processes of bureaucratic administration exemplified what Weber considered as an all-encompassing domination of formal rationality over substantive values.
While never officially supporting any party, the Institute entertained intensive research exchanges with the Soviet Union. Theort action whose coordination-function relies on the same drankfurt presuppositions was seen as connected to a justification discourse based on the satisfaction of specific validity-claims.
By the use of historical conceptual reconstruction and normative speculation, Brunkhorst presented the pathologies of the contemporary globalized world and the function that solidarity would play. One implication, perhaps the most downloaf one, is the criticism of positivism and of the epistemic status of knowledge.
Indeed, his communitarian turn has been paralleled by the work of some of his fellow scholars. Critical Theory has the following tasks: Trankfurt non-pathological social aggregations, individuals were said to be capable of achieving cooperative forms of self-actualizations only if freed from coercive mechanisms of domination.
Frankfurt School and Critical Theory | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
The Idea of Socialism: Indue to the Nazi takeover, the Institute was temporarily transferred, first to Geneva and then in to Columbia University, New York. Marcuse conceived of overcoming such tensions through the aestheticization of basic instincts liberated by the work of imagination.
Rationality, thus, began assuming a double significance: As noticed in the opening sections, differently from the first generation of Frankfurt School intellectuals, Habermas contributed greatly to bridging the continental frankurt analytical traditions, integrating aspects belonging to American Pragmatism, Anthropology and Semiotics with Marxism and Critical Social Theory.
Were one to follow the first option, the outcome would be one of falling into the side of acritical utopianism.